Saint Louis also became a center of activity with its strategic local and jumping off point on the Mississippi River for the trek west.
From the earliest Colonial times right up to today surveying the land and determining what is where and how to get from point A to point B and beyond, and who owned what, was and is, of vital concern.
The compass bearings and added graphics were engraved on a plate, used to make the paper cards It has even been purported that Paul Revere provided one Boston Maker with an engraving plate that he purportedly used to make his compass cards with.
Some of these were works of art depicting scenes with animals or landscapes or even people at work.
More complex and job specific compasses such as mining compasses and transits came with provisions for auxiliary \ scopes to allow for shooting over the plate and for determining angles in field use.
(See example to right) Solar Instruments were developed in order to allow the operator or surveyor to better determine his location by using the sun and horizon as reference points.